Wednesday, January 25, 2012

boha Introduction

Introduction
The bagpipe comes likely from antiquity, as we can find traces at the first century in a text where Suetonius says that Nero would play the utricularium. This is a popular instrument used by shepherds and minstrels.
It is made of an animal skin bag, acting as an air reservoir, to which are connected several pipes. The bag is inflated with air either by means of a mouthpiece or with a bellow actuated by the musician elbow. The bag is placed unde the musician's arm for controlling the air pressure.
The bagpipe has a chanter (melodic pipe) and one or more drones which produce a continuous note. During the medieval times, the bagpipes had only one drone, but afterward this number increased two or three around the XVIth century. At the XVIIIth century, Martin Hotteterre improved the instrument which becomes chromatic and is named the "musette de cour".
Bagpipes exist in the all world and is very present in Europe where each country has many different types.

Biniou kozh (France, Brittany)
biniou kozh
It is a bagpipe inflated from a mouthpiece. The chanter has a double reed, and a conocal bore with six or seven holes for playing while two additional holes are there for tuning. There is only one drone with a cylindrical bore, a single reed and a resonator. Biniuos kohz are often built on a Bb scale, but you may find some in F, G or A. Its range starts one octave higher than the bombarde with which it is often associated

Biniou braz (France, Brittany)
biniou braz
It is a copy of the scottish highland great pipe which was imported in Brittany at the end of the XIXth century. It includes three drones and has a Bb scale to play with the bombarde in bagads (big bands).

Veuze (France, Vendée et Poitou)
veuze
It comes directly from the medieval bagpipe of which it kept all attributes. The bagpipe is inflated with mouth and has a chanter and one drone. The chanter has a conical bore, a double reed, seven play holes and two tunig holes. The drone has a cylindrical bore, a single reed and a resonator.

Boha or bohaossac (France, Gascogne)
boha
The boha is a bagpipe of which the bag is made of a reverded goat skin (hair inside). Yhe instrulent is inflated with mouth by means of a mouthpiece and includes a chanter and a pesudo-melodic drone (it can produce two or three different notes). The chanter has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, which reduces its range to one octave. The drone may be named a melodic drone as it can produce three note for accompaniment. A little plug made of wood or wax is linked by a small chain for stopping the drone.

Bodega oru craba(France, Haut-Languedoc)
bodéga
It is a great bagpipe of which the bag is made of a whole goat (the name means goat) or sometimes a lamb. It is inflated with mouth and includes a chanter and a great drone placed on the musician's shoulder.

Cabrette (France, Auvergne)
cabrette
It is a small bagpipe generally inflated by means of a bellows, but there exists a type with a mouthpiece. The chanter (also named pied) is inserted into a small junction box together with a parallel drone (or chanterelle), which is normally mute (it is active on the mouth type). This lack of drone allows a large variety of scales around the dominant note. The chanter and drone set can be changed as a single piece for changing the scale and range. The tête (head) is the part that remains attached at the bag, and is nicely carved. The size of the chanter in centimetres determines the scale: 39 = C, 42 = B, 44 = Bb, 47 = A, etc... Most of the instruments were manufactured in Paris where there were many Auvergnats.

Musette Béchonnet (France, Auvergne)
Musette béchonnet
Its name is due to its inventor Joseph Béchonnet, instrument maker in Effiat (Puy-de-Dôme). This bagpipe is inflated with a bellows, and includes a chanter with a conical bore and a double reed, and three drones. The chanter is generally 16" long connected to a junction box. On the same box two drones are connected: A medium drone in G, and at the back a small drone tuned on the lower note of the chanter. A great drone is connected at the bottom of the bag pointing up and foward.

Chabrette (France, Limousin)
chabrette
The chabrette is a bagpipe inflated wiith mouth, having a chanter and two drones. The chanter is made of several pieces and has a key to reach the last hole using the little finger. The little drone is fixed parallel to the chanter, and the great one has a S-shape bore to reduce its overall length. This drone is laid on the musician arm. The junction box of the chabrettes are nicely ornate, often using mirrors; the pipres are decorated using bone, ivory, tin or lead.

Cornemuses from Centre-France (France, Berry, Morvan)
Cornemuse du Centre
These bagpipes are inflated with mouth and have a chanter and two drones. The chanter has a conical bore and a double reed. It has 7 holes on the on the top, two holes at the back for the inches and two tuning holes. The small drone is inserted into a box parralel to the chanter, and the long drone is inseted in the bag and placed on the musician's shoulder. There has been severall sizes for the chanter and the drones (14", 23") but the most common are 16" (G) and 20" (D).

Caramusa (France, Corse)
Caramusa


Zampogna (Italy, Abbruzes)
Zampogna


Surdulina (Italy)
surdulina


Galician gaïta (Spain, Galicia)
Gaïta galicienne


Asturienne gaïta (Spain, Asturia)
gaïta asturienne


Gaïta de boto (Spain, Aragon)
gaïta de Boto


Sac de gemecs (Spain, Catalogna)
sac de gemec


Xeremia (Spain, Majorca)
xeremia


Gaïta de foles (Portugal)
Gaïta de Foles


Tsambouna (Greece, Crete)
tsambouna


Surle (Greece)
surle


Doedelsack (France, Flanders, Belgium, Holland)
doedelsack


Muchosa (Belgium, Wallonie)
Muchosa


Sackpipa (Sweden)
sackpipa
This bagpipe is inflated by means of a mouthpiece and has a chanter and a drone both having a cylindrical bore and single blade reeds. A second chanter built in another key is generally available


Dude (Hungary, Paloc)
Dude


Gaïda (Macedonia)
Gaïda macédonienne


Gajdy (Serbia)
Gajdy serbe


Gajdy (Slovakia)
gajdy slovaque


Gajdy (Czech Republic)
gajdy tchèque


Koza (Poland)
koza
This bagpipe is inflated with mouth and the chanter contains three cylindrical bores with single blade reeds. Two bores are used for melody and the third one is a drone. A separated bigger drone has also a cylindrical bore and a single blade reed.


Duda (Poland)
Polish duda
Also named Wielkopolska, this bagpipe is inflated by means of a bellows. The chanter has a cylindrical bore and a single blade reed. The drone is has also a cylindrical bore and a single blade reed, but is folded.


Uillean pipe (Ireland)
uillean pipe
This bagpipe is inflated with a bellows and includes a chanter et three drones cnnected on a junction box. The chanter has a conical bore and some keys to allow a chromatic scale. The drones also have keys, which the musician actuates using his wrist for the melody accompaniment. This bagpipe is likely the most sophisticated as it has a wide field of play and a range of two octaves. The musician plays while sitting due to the instrument configuration.

Highland great bagpipe (United Kingdom, Scotland)
Highland great pipe
This instrument is the bagpipe symbol around the world, and most people only know this bagpipe. This instrument is inflated with mouth and includes a chanter and three drones. The chanter is tuned on Bb scale as the drones are tuned on the same note at different octaves.

Scottish small pipe (United Kingdom, England and Scotland)
Scottish small pipe


Nothumbrian small pipe (United Kingdom, England)
Northumbrian pipe


Leicestershire small pipe (United Kingdom, England)
Leistershire pipe


Cornish double pipe (United Kingdom, England)
Cornish pipe


English great pipe (United Kingdom, England)
English great pipe

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